My favored C++ development environment on Linux is Eclipse CDT. There are a number of different IDEs available for Linux but I use the Eclipse IDE for Java development and find it easier to stick to that tool for C++. Eclipse 4.2 CDT is mature and many of the rough edges found in prior releases have been filed off in Juno.
As I am working on a GCC plugin, I needed to create a debug build of GCC and then figure out how to debug it in the IDE. The procedure to build a debug version of GCC 4.7.2 in Ubuntu 12.04 can be found in my post here. Once you have a debug GCC built, adding Eclipse CDT and configuring a project for GCC debugging is a straightforward process – but there are a few details that can be added to the environment that make GCC development in Eclipse much more tractable.
Step 1: Install Java 1.7
Eclipse is supported with the Oracle, IBM and OpenJDK packages. In the past I’ve typically relied on the Sun JDKs and feel most comfortable using those JDKs for Eclipse. I use the Web Upd8 PPA repository for Ubuntu to install the JDK.
$ sudo add-apt-repository -y ppa:webupd8team/java $ sudo apt-get update $ sudo apt-get install -y oracle-jdk7-installer $ sudo update-java-alternatives -s java-7-oracle
You can check that the JDK installed correctly by asking for the java version
$ java -version
Step 2: Install Eclipse 4.2
Eclipse 4.2 is not yet in the official Ubuntu repository, so it must be installed manually. I haven’t been able to find a way to use wget to pull the Eclipse archive directly, so I use the version of Firefox bundled with Ubuntu 12.04 to download the archive. The Eclipse archives can be found at: http://www.eclipse.org/downloads/?osType=linux. For Eclipse 4.2 CDT you want to download: eclipse-cpp-juno-linux-gtk-x86_64.tar.gz, assuming you are using 64 bit Ubuntu.
$ mkdir ~/eclipse $ cd ~/eclipse $ mkdir 4.2 $ cd 4.2 # # Download Eclipse 4.2 from: http://www.eclipse.org/downloads/?osType=linux # The archive you want should be: eclipse-cpp-juno-linux-gtk-x86_64.tar.gz # $ tar -xzvf eclipse-cpp-juno-linux-gtk-x86_64.tar.gz $ sudo cp -r eclipse /usr/lib/ $ sudo cp eclipse/icon.xpm /usr/share/pixmaps/eclipse.xpm
If this is a first install of Eclipse, you will probably want to create a script in /usr/bin that simply launches Eclipse from /usr/lib/eclipse.
$ sudo sh -c "echo '/usr/lib/eclipse/eclipse' >> /usr/bin/eclipse" $ sudo chmod +x /usr/bin/eclipse
If you want to create a menu entry for the IDE, the best bet is to use the menu management tool: Applications > System Tools > Preferences > Main Menu. It should automatically pick up the icon from the pixmaps directory.
Step 3: Create two Simple C++ Projects to Debug GCC
From here on, the example assumes that GCC was built with –prefix=/usr/gcc-4.7.2 and –program-suffix=-4.7.2. If your debug version of GCC was built with different values, then substitute accordingly.
Inside Eclipse, create two new ‘Hello World’ C++ Projects. Use the ‘Executable’ project – not a ‘GNU Autotools’ project. For this example I labelled the first project ‘GCC Debug Test’ and the second ‘Project To Build’. ‘GCC Debug Test’ will be configured to build ‘Project to Build’ using the debug version of GCC. For clarity, ‘GCC Debug Test’ isn’t even built, it is needed to configure the debug settings for GCC.
First, create a custom .gdbinit file in the ‘GCC Debug Test’ working directory. Do this by copying the .gdbinit file from the gcc build directory into the project working directory and then fixup the paths in the file to point back to the build directory. The .gdbinit file created during the gcc build process provides a collection of scripts that can be used to print gcc data structures while debugging – this will prove invaluable. FInally, add ‘set schedule-multiple’ as the first line of the file – this option causes gdb to track multiple processes in a single debugging session. The .gdbinit file should look something like this:
set schedule-multiple dir ~/gcc_build/4.7.2/build/gcc dir ~/gcc_build/4.7.2/gcc dir ~/gcc_build/4.7.2/gcc/cp dir ~/gcc_build/4.7.2/gcc/lto source ~/gcc_build/4.7.2/build/gcc/gdbinit.in
In the ‘GCC Debug Test’ project, go to the ‘Run > Debug Configurations’ dialog and create a new ‘C/C++ Application’ debug configuration. On the ‘Main’ tab, enter the path to the ‘gcc-4.7’ debug executable in the ‘/usr/gcc-4.7.2/bin’ directory in the ‘C/C++ Application:’ field in the dialog and click ‘Apply’.
After completing the ‘Main’ tab dialog, click on the ‘Arguments’ tab and enter the path to the test file to be compiled and click ‘Apply’.
Next, click on the ‘Environment’ tab and create two variables: LD_LIBRARY_PATH and PATH. For LD_LIBRARY_PATH, add the paths to the ‘lib’, ‘lib64’ and ‘lib64/debug’ directories for the GCC build to the front of the environment variable. For PATH, add the path to the ‘bin’ directory to the front of the path as well. For both environment variables, add the original paths to the end of the variable. Make sure the ‘Replace native environment with specified environment’ radio button is selected.
Finally, click on the ‘Debugger’ tab. In that dialog, insure the ‘Stop on startup at: main’ checkbox is checked. Enter the path to the .gdbinit file created above into the ‘GDB command file’field. Finally, check the ‘Automatically debug forked processes’ checkbox. Since the gcc-4.7.2 application is just a driver for the actual compiler, unless this field is selected the debugger will not debug into the actual compiler when that process is forked by gcc. Click ‘Apply’ and the configuration is complete.
With the debug configuration finished, click ‘Debug’ and gdb should launch and stop at the ‘main’ function for gcc-4.7.
Step 4 : Making Debug GCC the version of GCC to use for Builds
This step is not *strictly* necessary, though building a plugin or modifying the gcc suite and compiling those modifications with a different version of gcc is ill advised for all sorts of good reasons. Changing compilers in GCC is straightforward, though a multi-step process.
First, navigate to the Project->Properties->Settings dialog and select ‘GCC C++ Compiler’. Set the ‘Command’ field to the debug version of g++. I also set the CXX0X experimental symbol and the -std=c++0x option.
Set the ‘Command’ field for the ‘GCC C++ Linker’ as well.
After pressing ‘OK’, the newly built compiler will not be used by Eclipse for compiling this project. There doesn’t appear to be a way to set these options globally, so the same changes will have to be made for each project you wish to compile with the the debug GCC suite.